Flotation for wine clarification – how does it work and why use it?

Greg Howell and Carly Gamble, Vintessential Laboratories - 14 Sep 2017

Flotation, as used in the wine industry, is yet another way of clarifying juice. Instead of the solids settling out to the bottom of a tank by gravity (as has been a long standing and common practice), using the flotation process, the solids are agglomerated and rise to the surface of the tank or vessel by the action of gas bubbles. Flotation is primarily used in the production of white and rosé wines.

Defining and developing management strategies for sour rot

Megan Hall, Gregory Loeb and Wayne Wilcox - 06 Sep 2017

Cornell University scientists report on research results from the past four years conducted on the specific organisms and conditions needed for sour rot to develop. 

New wine bottling techniques could boost the shelf-life of wine

CORDIS - 01 Aug 2017

An EU-funded project has developed innovative new wine bottling technology that cuts the amount of oxygen in a bottle, reducing the need for sulphates.

Revolutionary new product for tartrate stabilisation

Karien O'Kennedy - 01 Aug 2017

A new product containing the active ingredient potassium poly-aspartate (KPA) will be on the market soon. It has been legalised by the OIV for use to prevent tartrate crystal formation in white and red wines.

Preveraison Water Deficit Accelerates Berry Color Change in Merlot

Jose C. Herrera, Simone D. Castellarin - 12 Jun 2017

Here we present three years of observations (2011 to 2013) on the progression of color change in Merlot vines subjected to water deficit (WD) or irrigation (C) regimes.

Virus diversity associated with grapevine leafroll disease

Nicholas Molenaar, Mandi Engelbrecht, Hano Maree & Johan Burger - 16 May 2017

Grapevine leafroll disease is the most economically important of the grapevine virus diseases and has been reported to contribute up to 60% loss in yield of fruit. The grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs) are the collective infectious agents commonly found in GLD-symptomatic grapevines, where Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) (genus Ampelovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the primary causative agent.

The contribution of lactic acid bacteria to the sensorial characteristics of red wine

Hélène Nieuwoudt - 06 Apr 2017

The results of the research clearly indicate that lactic acid bacterial strains may impact significantly on the aroma and flavour of wine. The results of the study are important to the wine industry because they illustrate and emphasise the potential contribution of different MLF cultures to wine aroma and flavour, and the potential to influence consumer preferences.

Uncorking Innovation

Lora Kolodny - 15 Feb 2017

The ancient craft of wine making conjures romantic notions of hand-picked vines, and bare feet crushing grapes. However, wine production today is a thoroughly high-tech affair. 

Under-vine Management Impacts Soil Properties and Leachate Composition

Alex Koeberle - 15 Feb 2017

Long-term vineyard sustainability is greatly influenced by soil quality.  This study demonstrates that herbicide application and cultivation may decrease soil organic matter and soil health.  Rather, under-vine cover crops may conserve soil quality over time and also buffer nutrient and agrochemical inputs from leaching into the surrounding environment.

Reviewing YAN and Hydrogen Sulfide: Part 2

Denise Gardner - 09 Feb 2017

One of the main arguments for avoiding “sulfur” as a description term for an aroma is due to the fact that there are actually several forms of aromatic sulfur-containing compounds found in wine, and they can have very different aromas (smells, odors) associated with that one compound.

Reviewing YAN and Hydrogen Sulfide: Part 1

Denise Gardner - 09 Feb 2017

The variability associated with YAN provides a challenge to winemakers: the lack of predictability associated with hydrogen sulfide formation during primary fermentation due to unfulfilled nitrogen needs by wine yeasts.

Surface Irrigation Remains Best Option

Wine Australia - 27 Jan 2017

Conventional wisdom was that sub-surface irrigation was the best way forward if water restrictions were to become the norm. Five years of good science supported by Wine Australia now suggests otherwise.

Tech Brings Value to Vineyards

Amanda Garris - 27 Jan 2017

Cornel Lake Erie Research and Extention Laboratory Director Terry Bates says he is systematically taking the guesswork out of managing vineyards, with help from a fleet of sensors that see the vineyard more clearly than the human eye.  

Vineyard cover crops reduce expense, save environment

Melissa Osgood - 11 Jan 2017

Cornell researchers have advice for vineyard managers in cool and humid climates like the Northeast: cover up.

Image: Lucinda Heyns

Winegrape Powdery Mildew App goes global

University of Adelaide - 24 Nov 2016

Grape growers and winemakers around the world will be able to easily assess powdery mildew in the field with the help of a mobile application just released globally.

What are volatile thiols?

Avery Heelan - 24 Nov 2016

Volatile thiols are most prevalent in Sauvignon blanc, specifically New Zealand style, giving it the distinctive aroma profile which has given designation and respect to this variety and grape growing region. The volatile thiols responsible for these aromas include 4MMP, 3MH and 3MHA. 

Manipulating the peppery aroma of wines: The characterization of rotundone

Becca Yeamans-Irwin - 09 Nov 2016

Rotundone, a guaiane-like compound, has the very distinctive aroma of pepper, with a very low sensory threshold (16ng/L in red wine and 8ng/L in water), therefore is a very important compound in wine that warrants further study.  Initial studies have found rotundone concentrations up to 145 ng/L in Australian Syrah, Mourvèdre, and Durif wines, while another recent study found rotundone concentrations as high as 561 ng/L in European red wines Schioppettino and Vespolina, and white wine Gruener Veltliner. 

Assessing and managing potassium concentration in the vineyard

By Michela Centinari - 16 Sep 2016

This short article will review problems related to high/luxury absorption of potassium, briefly discuss how soil mineralogy and pH can affect K uptake, why it is important to regularly monitor vine nutrient status, and what environmental and cultural factors may impact K uptake and accumulation in plant tissues.

Image copyright: Wine & Grapes U.

How grapevines respond to water stress

By Tim Martinson and Alan Lakso - 15 Sep 2016

Moderate water stress at the right time can reduce vegetative growth and help vines achieve the appropriate balance between vegetative growth and fruit yield and quality. Severe water stress limits photosynthesis, and can delay ripening, reduce bud fruitfulness, reduce winter hardiness, and result in sudden vine collapse.

Aster yellows and leafhoppers

by André de Klerk & Roleen Carstens - 18 Aug 2016

Surveys were conducted in vineyards infected with Aster yellows in Vredendal, Waboomsrivier and Robertson to determine which types of leafhoppers occur in the vineyards; which leafhoppers carry the Aster yellows phytoplasma in their digestive tract, making them potential vectors of the disease and whether any of the leafhoppers are definitely a vector of the disease.

 

Image copyright: WineLand Magazine

Polyaspartate to avoid tartrate precipitation

stabiWine - 18 Aug 2016

The technological, economic and environmental characteristics of PAA are providing very significant advantages on all present practices. Once authorized, tartaric stabilization through addition of PAA is expected to become the first choice for a very large number of wine producers in Europe, especially among small and medium size facilities.

Development of sulfur off-odors post-fermentation

James Osborne - 15 Jul 2016

While H2S formation occurs mainly during primary fermentation, additional volatile sulfur compounds can be formed at later stages during winemaking. The formation of these compounds can be difficult to predict, and their formation is not necessarily related to H2S issues during the primary fermentation.

Japanese beetle - Common pest in US vineyards

Andy Muza, Penn State Extension – Erie County - 11 Jul 2016

The Japanese beetle has been in the United States since 1916 when it was first discovered in New Jersey. Currently, this pest can be commonly found in all states from Maine to Georgia and as far west as Illinois and Tennessee.

Top tips for filtration

Matt Holdstock - 11 Jul 2016

Matt Holdstock, a senior oenologist at the AWRI,  shares his top 8 tips / factors to keep in mind when considering filtration of wine.

New detection technology may yield a TCA-free future for cork suppliers

By Mary Ellen Shoup - 20 Jun 2016

Wine cork quality control has hit a new level of precision with cork producer Amorim’s NDtech, an automated system that screens individual cork stoppers on the production line for trichloroanisole (TCA). 

The choice of bottle closures

Charl Theron in WineLand Magazine - 09 Jun 2016

Irrespective of the responsibility for the packaging the combination of the wine, container and the closure of the container must be executed optimally to ensure that the wine reaches the consumer in the best condition. The choice of the bottle closure is only one of the decisive factors.

Enhancement of Sauvignon blanc wine through yeast combinations

by Hentie Swiegers, Ellie King, Brooke Travis, Leigh Francis & Sakkie Pretorius - 09 Jun 2016

In this study it is clear that yeast combinations are potentially a powerful mechanism to increase fruitiness in white wines, thereby increasing the wine’s consumer appeal.

Article published in 2007 in Wineland Magazine

How higher alcohols and volatile phenols impact on key aromas

Russell Moss - 23 May 2016

When the winemaker typically thinks of volatile phenols, usually the first compounds to come to mind are 4-EP and 4-EG, which produce an unpleasant “band-aid”- or “barnyard”-like aroma. However, there are volatile phenols which are intrinsic to the aroma of some wines, such is the case with 4-vinylphenol/4-vinylguiacol which provide Gewürztraminer with a carnation and clove-like aroma.

Protecting European wine: Vinbot rover optimises harvest and quality

by Horizon Magazine - 16 May 2016

"The rover uses a laser to measure how much actual sunlight is accessible to the leaf surface. It then pieces together these scans to construct a virtual image of the vine and how much sunlight reaches it."

Oxygen permeating through oak barrels – new results

by Wessel du Toit in WineLand Magazine - 16 May 2016

Recent advances in measuring oxygen in a non-destructive way has led the way for more real-time measurements. This technology uses a principle where oxygen concentrations can be measured inside a bottle, tank or barrel without opening these containers. Eight of these oxygen sensors were placed at locations inside four new fine grain French, five new, fine grain American oak and four new medium grain American oak barrels which were filled with model wine. This model wine consisted of only 15% ethanol at a pH of 3.5 of which the oxygen was previously removed. This was done in order to measure the oxygen transfer more accurately, as no anti-oxidants were present in this model wine which could have reacted with the oxygen as would happen in real wine.

California winery hires earthworms to clean up its wastewater

The Guardian - 12 May 2016

Everyday earthworms are the latest solution to a thorny problem that most wine drinkers never consider: wastewater disposal.

(Image: BioFiltro)

Aircraft pictures helping productivity of Coonawarra vineyards

The Naracoorte Herald - 11 May 2016

Cameras attached to fixed-wing aircraft are providing data to viticulturists which is helping to identify canopy temperature – in order to improve water use and wine quality.

The causes of protein instability in white wine

Karien O'Kennedy - 29 Apr 2016

Recently various alternatives were identified, the most promising of which appears to be the protease, Proctase. This article provides a short overview of the proteins responsible for instability, as well as the factors that impact on their stability.

Implications of different pruning strategies

by Hennie Visser in WineLand Magazine - 22 Apr 2016

The decision about which pruning strategy to use is very important. Initial clean pruning may be an option, to be followed later by short pruning. Alternatively these may be combined into one action, or one could even opt for hedge pruning followed by clean and short pruning in one go. This may impact on the canopy management to be applied, as well as bud fertility and therefore yield.

YouTube - Pellenc Optimum grape harvester in action

vinetechequipment - 22 Apr 2016

Pellenc's New Grape harvester: 99.82% clean grapes. Touch screen controls. Up to 43% percent fuel savings with new engine management system. Tier IV engine. Tighter turning. Faster washing and service. 3x Quieter Cab.

ORAL BACTERIA SHOWN TO PRODUCE AROMATIC VOLATILES FROM GLYCOSIDIC PRECURSORS

Becca Yeamans, (www.academicwino.com) - 22 Apr 2016

A 2015 study in the journal Food Chemistry aimed to evaluate whether or not human oral microbiota can convert odorless aromatic precursor compounds in wine into their corresponding aromatic glycosidic compounds. The results could potentially have a profound impact on our understanding of how we taste and evaluate wines.

RESCUING MINERALITY

Jamie Goode (published October 2014) - 22 Apr 2016

"Wines that smell 'mineral' tend to be white wines, and the source of this matchstick/mineral character is most likely a volatile sulfur compound produced during fermentation by yeasts."

ESCA IN SOUTH AFRICAN VINEYARDS

Francois Halleen and Lizel Mostert in WineLand Magazine - 13 Apr 2016

Esca is a fairly unknown grapevine disease in South Africa, although the disease has probably existed locally for decades. This article discusses the causative organisms, the symptoms by which the disease may be recognised and basic control strategies.

Image: WineLand Magazine

Brettanomyces – the yeast lurking in your wine

by Marli Louw, Maret du Toit & Benoit Divol in WineLand Magazine - 11 Apr 2016

Most winemakers know the feared five-letter word “Brett” all too well. Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a famous red wine spoilage yeast, responsible for financial losses within the wine industry yearly. Research has allowed significant advances in our global understanding of B. bruxellensis, especially concerning this yeast’s peculiar ability to survive and develop in a matrix as harsh as wine. This article provides an overview of these recent research findings.

THE EFFECT OF COVER CROPS AND RING NEMATODES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT IN DRIP IRRIGATED VINEYARDS

by Johan Fourie, Antoinette Malan & Niel Kruger in WineLand Magazine - 11 Apr 2016

Plant-parasitic nematodes can reduce crop production by as much as 15% in grapevines under stress (inter alia water stress). An important plant-parasitic nematode associated with grapevines is ring nematode (Criconemoides xenoplax). Ring nematodes damage the roots of all grapevine rootstocks.

BALANCE AND COMPLEXITY: HOW OXYGEN AND AROMATIC INTERACTIONS IMPACT WINE

by Remy Charest - Nomacorc - 11 Apr 2016

The emergence of a complex bouquet has a lot to do with the presence of many different components in the wine itself, of course, but it also is shaped by the way these compounds interact. Certain compounds act as boosters for others, making them more easily perceptible.

Look after your drip systems

by Gert Engelbrecht in WineLand Magazine - 05 Apr 2016

System effectiveness is one of the biggest advantages of drip irrigation. The design of drip irrigation is aimed at minimising water loss as a result of evaporation and/or runoff. In terms of system effectiveness (the efficiency with which water is delivered to the irrigation system from the irrigation dam or tap point on the farm’s border, to the point where it lands on the soil) drip irrigation performs the best with 90%, followed by micro sprinklers with 80% system effectiveness.

Pectin test protocol

Practical guidelines by Karien O'Kennedy - 05 Apr 2016

The use of enzymes in winemaking is common practice today. There is a wide variety of pectinase based enzymes available to winemakers. Quality and efficacy differences exist and performing a pectin test is one way to establish the efficacy of a particular enzyme, especially when fast depectinisation before flotation is the objective.  

The use of exogenous tannins in winemaking

Karien O’Kennedy - 05 Apr 2016

A wide variety of tannins are available from different suppliers. Even bigger than the variety of trade names are the differences in quality of all the products. These differences in quality are as a result of the origin and the manufacturing process of the tannins. Tannins extracted from grape seeds and grape skins are usually the most expensive, followed by tannins from oak wood. It usually also is the more expensive tannins that are the most effective. It is extremely important that wine cellars make very sure that the tannins they are using have the desired effect.

Malo now BEFORE alcoholic fermentation

Karien O'Kennedy - 05 Apr 2016

A born and bred South African bacterium is making headlines and winning awards for bringing about a complete paradigm shift in the way we go about malolactic fermentation. First there was spontaneous, which is now considered “so yesterday”. Then came commercial cultures to be inoculated after alcoholic fermentation (AF), offering various advantageous over spontaneous such as low VA, low or no biogenic amines, speed, etc. The past few years were dominated by AF/MLF co-inoculation offering further advantageous such as even faster speed, reliability and aroma contributions.

BUT now Danish biotechnology company Chr. Hansen has launched Viniflora NoVA™ - a Lactobacillus plantarum culture that can complete MLF in as fast as three days before AF!

Working together to improve South African consumers’ wine appreciation skills!

Valeria Panzeri - 05 Apr 2016

The time is right for the wine industry and its research partners to join forces in encouraging the growing South African middle class to appreciate wine. The vast majority of South African consumers have always seemed to prefer a cold beer or a ready-to drink-spirit cooler to a glass of wine. Wine is often perceived as a sophisticated, complex and intricate drink that requires a deep knowledge, which allows you to discuss it in public even before you could actually get to taste it or offer it to your guests.

Drones in Viticulture

by Anne Alessandri - 05 Apr 2016

The potential drones have in Viticulture as remote sensing tools are enormous. They are capable of acquiring high resolution optical data which can aid precision viticulture greatly. Traditional modes of data collection (satellites and manned aircrafts) have limitations, such as low resolution imagery, cost implications, lack of flexibility and restricted areas (i.e. mountainous areas). The advantages of drones are for instance lower operating costs, fast acquisition of high resolution imagery, flexibility (data can be collected ‘on demand’) and practicality (especially for smaller vineyards).

Sensory and Science for the Pinotage Youth Development Academy

Marianne McKay - 05 Apr 2016

As part of our ongoing, and mutually rewarding relationship, the Department of Oenology and Viticulture (DVO) again hosted 25 Pinotage Youth Development Academy (PYDA) students during 2015 for three more modules in wine science, with a strong emphasis on Sensory Evaluation.

Metabolomics: New Techniques to Find out The Hidden Secrets of Wines

by Remy Charest - Nomacorc - 02 Mar 2016

Thanks to science, we know more and more about what is going on in a wine as it’s taking shape in the cellar or evolving in bottles. But as French researcher Régis Gougeon has been finding out, we’ve only seen the tip of the iceberg.

These probiotics for plants can help feed the world

www.fastcoexist.com - 23 Feb 2016

Interesting general read on the importance of the microbiota present in soils and their influence on the health of agricultural crops. Various vine and wine researchers around the world are now starting to study the microbiome of vineyards soils, vines, grapes and spontaneous fermentations.

Shaking grapevines disrupts pests’ sex lives

By Kai Kupferschmidt in Science - 05 Feb 2016

When it comes to the sex lives of insects, entomologists sure know how to kill the mood. To keep pests from making love—and little bugs—they have developed all sorts of tricks, like spraying plumes of pheromones that lead love-struck males astray. Now, scientists have developed a new way to disrupt mating: shaking the insects’ perches to disrupt the vibrations that would-be partners normally use to find each other.

Image: www.sciencemag.org

The perfect Pinot problem

The Economist - 03 Feb 2016

Researchers report in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry that they detected 49 aromatic compounds in Pinot noir grapes from the two years during both the early and the late sampling periods. Most of these compounds remained at low levels throughout the growing period. However, four of them were found in much higher concentrations in the mature grapes than in the early-season ones.

Image: Wikipedia

Vineyard water management with limited resources

by Hanno van Schalkwyk in WineLand Magazine - 03 Feb 2016

Water management and irrigation scheduling are obviously specific to the area and region and dependent on the wine objectives and production levels to be achieved. The following principles may be important, however, in the development of a strategy where water resources are very limited.

Image: WineLand Magazine

The scientific puzzle that is rotundone

Wine Australia: Research and Development - 13 Dec 2015

Since 2007, when an AWRI team revealed that rotundone found in grape skins is responsible for the distinctive black pepper flavours in many Shiraz wines, scientists have been working to understand the factors that influence its presence and potency. However, each new discovery brings new questions.

Metals in wine is a complicated story

Wine Australia: Research and Development - 13 Dec 2015

Research has discovered that adding a little copper to white wine prior to bottling ‘just in case’ is usually ineffective and can actually be counterproductive.

"Free" doesn't always mean free - rethinking SO2 measurements in the winery

Gavin L. Sacks and Patricia A. Howe, Research Focus - Cornell University - 02 Dec 2015

Researchers at Cornell University have developed a simple, inexpensive headspace – gas detection tube (HS-GDT) method that accurately measures molecular SO2 in red wines. All standard approaches to free SO2 badly overestimate the amount of free and molecular SO2 in all wines (particularly red wines) due to the presence of weak binders like anthocyanins.

Handling of cover crops

by Conrad Schutte - 18 Nov 2015

Cover crops can be used in various ways in the course of the growing season. The selection of a suitable method depends on various factors that may include the following, inter alia: the vigour of the grapevines, ground water levels, incidence of frost, incidence of undesirable nematodes, the weed status of the vineyard and the current biomass of the cover crop that was planted.

Grape seed color not helpful in assessing wine tannins

By Scott Weybright, College of Agricultural, Human & Natural Resource Sciences - 18 Nov 2015

PROSSER, Wash. – For decades, if not centuries, the changing color of a grape’s seed has played a role in determining when winemakers harvest grapes. After some complex experiments, though, researchers at Washington State University have determined that seed colors don’t have the long-held impact, contrary to wine mythology.

How Millennials Are Changing Wine

by Lettie Teague in The Wall Street Journal - 06 Nov 2015

They’re the reason you use emojis instead of email and Snapchats instead of real chats. But will millennials also upend the wine establishment? As Lettie Teague discovers, this relationship status is complicated.

Illustration copyright: Janne Iivonen, The Wall Street Journal

Sustainable Winemaking

by Jackson Family Wines - 05 Nov 2015

Professor Roger Boulton explains the water and energy saving features that contribute to sustainable winemaking at the UC Davis Teaching and Research Winery in a video provided by Jackson Family Wines.

source:https://vimeo.com/user17673657/review/144404028/894f700122

Secretion of hydrolytic enzymes by non-Saccharomyces yeasts – a relevant trait for winemaking?

by Benoit Divol & Mathabatha Setati - 30 Oct 2015

The secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (e.g. proteases, glycosidases and pectinases) is known to be much stronger in non-Saccharomyces yeasts than in S. cerevisiae. This trait has been reported repeatedly in literature and identified as one of the main contributions of non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The aim of the current study was to screen a large collection of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for pectinase, β-glucosidase and protease activity all at pH 3.5 and to test the actual secretion of hydrolytic enzymes during fermentation of synthetic grape juice.

Polyphenols in wine

by Jamie Goode - 18 Oct 2015

Polyphenols are a large group of compounds that use a chemical structure called phenol as the basic building block. That’s where the name comes from: ‘poly’ phenols are where more than one phenol group is joined to another. They are probably the most important group of flavour chemicals in red wines, but are of much less importance in whites.

A guide to the fining of wine

by James F. Harbertson, Washington State University - 13 Oct 2015

Wine is a product of both the vineyard and the techniques the winemaker uses. Occasionally, aspects of the wine need to be refined more dramatically than can be dealt with by field adjustments or simple blending because not every growing season or fermentation goes the way the winemaker wants. Fining is a technique that is used to remove unwanted juice/wine components that affect clarification, astringency, color, bitterness, and aroma; the technique works for both red and white winemaking.

HOW QUICKLY DOES OXYGEN DISAPPEAR FROM WHITE WINE?

by Wessel du Toit, Daniella Fracassetti, Carien Coetzee, Andreja Vanzo & Davide Ballabio in WineLand Magazine - 12 Oct 2015

Oxygen plays an important role in wine production. In general the addition of oxygen in white wine is not wanted. This is due to the development of a brown colour, a decrease in fruitiness in the wines and an increase in acetaldehyde levels. 

Image: www.winemag.com

 

Targeting spray application

by Wine Australia - Research and Development - 07 Oct 2015

Comprehensive research looking at how best to use spray systems for pest and disease control in the vineyard is starting to bear fruit. Data from two years of intensive work are now coming in and the University of Queensland research team, led by senior research fellow Dr Andrew Hewitt and senior research scientist Chris O’Donnell, has begun developing best practice models for use in Australian conditions.

Dissolved Oxygen and Free SO2

Nicky Wilton - Vinlab - 04 Oct 2015

Oxygen contact with wine during processing is nearly always unavoidable. Unfortunately, oxygen exposure is not always desirable. Many clients complain of an SO2 imbalance i.e. low free SO2 levels together with high total SO2 levels. The culprit in these cases is usually too much dissolved oxygen.

Local Microbes Give Wine Character

Article review by Ruth Williams in TheScientist / Image: Vineyard in New Zealand by Matt Goddard - 26 Sep 2015

The distinct regional conditions, or terroir, in which grapes are grown are thought to shape a wine’s character. But strict scientific evidence of this phenomenon has been lacking. Now, researchers in Auckland, New Zealand, have confirmed that at least one aspect of terroir—local differences in yeast strains—does indeed alter the outcome of Sauvignon Blanc fermentation. Their findings were published today (September 24) in Scientific Reports.

Like grilling a steak, but much slower: How the Maillard Reaction affects the aromas of wine

by Remy Charest - Nomarcorc blog - 18 Sep 2015

In the world of food and wine pairings, nothing is more classic than matching a nice piece of grilled meat with a big red wine like Bordeaux. The two work well together, partly due to the counterpoint between the meaty flavors and the fruity character of the wine and the way the fat in the meat softens the tannins, but also because they share a number of aromatic components that come from the same source: the Maillard reaction.

The Bubbles: Basics about sparkling wine production techniques

By Denise M. Gardner, Wine & Grape U. - 18 Sep 2015

There are several styles of sparkling wine that a winery should consider prior to making plans to incorporate a sparkling product into their wine portfolio.  To obtain a quality product, varietal selection and winery resources (i.e., funds, equipment, personnel, time availability) should be considered before undergoing production.

Influence of several oenological fining agents on ochratoxin A removal

Filipa Carvalho, António Inês, Fernando Milheiro Nunes, Luís Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís Abrunhosa, Fernanda Cosmea - Image: www.flickr.com - 17 Sep 2015

To evaluate their effectiveness, eleven commercial fining agents were used to get new approaches on OTA removal from wine.

The impact of shipping temperatures on white wine

by Wessel du Toit in WineLand Magazine - 16 Sep 2015

This main aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different temperatures to which wine might be exposed to during shipping on the sensory composition of white South African wines.

How SO2 additions influence microbial diversity during fermentation

by Michael L. Swadener and David A. Mills in Practical Winery and Vineyard Journal, Wines and Vines September 2015 - 16 Sep 2015

The use of sulfur dioxide (sulfites or SO2) in winemaking is hardly a new technology-it has been used since the Romans started burning sulfur candles in emptied barrels to keep them from turning sour. The general antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of SO2 in wine have also been well known for several decades, and many modern winemakers find SO2 to be a key additive for producing (and preserving) premium quality wine.

Potential alternatives for bentonite

by Charl Theron in WineLand Magazine - 15 Sep 2015

The development of an effective, cheap alternative for bentonite has been researched intensively. Last year the use of the two enzymes, Aspergillopepsin I (A1) and Aspergillopepsin II (A2) was legalised in Australia and New Zealand. Both are proteolytic enzymes that can break down the proteins that cause turbidity in wine.

Breakthrough for analysis of volatile thiols in SA wines

by Wessel du Toit, Elizma van Wyngaard, Frederico Piano, Daniella Fracassetti, Marietjie Stander, Antonio Tirelli & Astrid Buica - 09 Sep 2015

Volatile thiols play an integral role in the passion fruit, grape fruit and guava aromas of different types of white wines. The Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, embarked on developing a new method for volatile thiol analysis in white wines, as well as to perform a screening to determine levels of these compounds in South African Sauvignon blanc wines.

Cane diameter and gross profit

by Mark Eltom, Chris Winefield and Mike Trought in WineLand Magazine - 09 Sep 2015

Pruning is one of the most important aspects of vineyard management, where selecting the optimum cane can be time consuming and difficult. Although the influence of pruning techniques and training systems on vine growth and yield is well documented4,5, little is known regarding the influence of cane diameter on yield and gross profit. Understanding the influence of cane selection on yield allows for a more informed decision regarding harvest logistics, potential financial gains, storage space, equipment usage and matching market demands.

Easy does it: Looking at barrel ageing practices with Nicolas Vivas

By Remy Charest - Nomarcorc Newsletter - 13 Aug 2015

Barrel aging is an important and valued part of winemaking, especially when producing longer-aging wines. The aging process has many potential benefits, starting with greater stability, especially in terms of the wines’ interaction with oxygen.

New fruit pest?

by Pia Addison, Vaughn Walton and Kate Mitchell in WineLand Magazine - 12 Aug 2015

Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii), or SWD, is a vinegar fly originating from Asia, but unlike most vinegar flies, D. suzukii is able to attack fully intact susceptible ripening and ripe fruit. Currently, susceptible fruit include blueberries, caneberries and cherries. In some cases, wine and table grapes may be affected dependent on compromised berries due to cracking, disease and bird damage.

Best practices in malolactic fermentation (MLF) management

Article by Charl Theron, WineLand Magazine - 01 Jun 2015

Malolactic fermentation is an integrated part of winemaking which cannot be ignored. It can however be beneficial or detrimental and it is important that winemakers are well informed about it in order to make the right decisions. The execution of the decisions is also important to ensure that the required results are obtained in the wines.

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